Contents

- What is the p-value?
- What is the null hypothesis?
- What is the alternative hypothesis?
- What is the significance level?
- What are the Type I and Type II errors?
- How to calculate the p-value?
- How to interpret the p-value?
- What are the limitations of the p-value?
- How to find the p-value with technology?
- What are the next steps after finding the p-value?

P values are a key part of statistical analysis. This post covers how to find p values using technology, including online calculators and statistical software.

Checkout this video:

## What is the p-value?

The p-value is a measure of the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis. It is used as a cutoff point to decide whether or not to reject the null hypothesis. A low p-value means that there is strong evidence against the null hypothesis and that you can reject it. A high p-value means that there is weak evidence against the null hypothesis and that you cannot reject it.

## What is the null hypothesis?

If you want to find the p-value using technology, there are a few things you need to know first. Most importantly, you need to understand what the null hypothesis is. The null hypothesis is the statistical hypothesis that there is no difference between two sets of data. In other words, it is the hypothesis that the difference between the two sets of data is due to chance.

## What is the alternative hypothesis?

There are multiple ways to find the p value, but with technology, it has become much easier. The first step is to understand what the alternative hypothesis is. The null hypothesis states that there is no difference between two groups, while the alternative hypothesis states that there is a difference. The alternative hypothesis is what you are trying to prove with your data. Therefore, you will want to find a p value that is less than the alpha level, which is usually 0.05.

Once you have your data, you will need to enter it into a statistical software program in order to calculate the p value. This can be done by using a t test or an ANOVA test. If you are using a t test, you will need to enter the means and standard deviations of both groups. If you are using an ANOVA test, you will need to enter the means of each group and the overall standard deviation. Once you have entered the data, the software will calculate the p value for you.

## What is the significance level?

The significance level, also called the alpha level, is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. The significance level is set by the researcher before conducting the hypothesis test and is usually based on convention. Common significance levels are 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10; however, any value can be used. A smaller significance level indicates stronger evidence against the null hypothesis.

## What are the Type I and Type II errors?

In order to understand p values, it is first necessary to understand Type I and Type II errors. These are two types of errors that can occur when a statistical test is performed.

Type I error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected even though it is true. This type of error is also known as a false positive.

Type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is accepted even though it is false. This type of error is also known as a false negative.

P values are used to help decide whether or not to reject the null hypothesis. A small p value (usually defined as less than 0.05) indicates that there is strong evidence against the null hypothesis. This means that the chances of Type I error are low and that the results of the test are significant.

A large p value (usually defined as greater than 0.05) indicates that there is weak evidence against the null hypothesis. This means that the chances of Type I error are high and that the results of the test may not be significant.

## How to calculate the p-value?

The p-value is a statistical measure that helps scientists determine whether or not a hypothesis is true. P-values are used to calculate the likelihood that a results is due to chance. The lower the p-value, the more likely it is that the results are not due to chance.

There are many different ways to calculate p-values, but most scientists use technology to do so. There are online calculators, statistical software programs, and Excel templates that can be used to find p-values.

## How to interpret the p-value?

In order to understand p-values, it is important to first understand what a null hypothesis is. The null hypothesis is the assumption that there is no difference between two groups. For example, when testing a new drug, the null hypothesis would be that the new drug is no different from the current drug.

The p-value is a statistical measure that helps us determine whether or not to reject the null hypothesis. If the p-value is less than 0.05, we can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a difference between the two groups. If the p-value is greater than 0.05, we cannot reject the null hypothesis and we cannot conclude that there is a difference between the two groups.

There are many ways to calculate p-values, but most technology nowadays can do it for us. For example, if we are using Microsoft Excel to do our analysis, we can simply use the =Tdist function. This function will take in two arguments: The first argument is the t-statistic and the second argument is the degrees of freedom.

The t-statistic can be calculated using Microsoft Excel as well. The formula for calculating t-statistic is:

t= (Mean1 – Mean2) / (Standard Deviation1/square root of n1 + Standard Deviation2/square root of n2)

where n1 and n2 are the sample sizes for group 1 and group 2 respectively.

Once we have calculated the t-statistic, we can plug it into the =Tdist function along with the degrees of freedom to get our p-value.

## What are the limitations of the p-value?

The p-value is a statistical measure that is used to assess the strength of evidence in a scientific study. It is important to note that the p-value is not a measure of truth or falsity, but rather a measure of the strength of evidence. The p-value can be used to support or refute a hypothesis, but it cannot be used to prove that a hypothesis is true or false.

There are several limitations to the p-value that should be considered when interpreting results from scientific studies. First, the p-value does not indicate whether the null hypothesis is true or false. Second, the p-value does not take into account the number of studies that have been conducted on a particular topic. Third, the p-value does not take into account the quality of the studies that have been conducted. Fourth, the p-value does not take into account the size of the effect that is being measured. Fifth, and perhaps most importantly, the p-value does not indicate how likely it is that thenull hypothesis is true.

## How to find the p-value with technology?

P-values can be found using a number of statistical software packages. The most popular ones are Excel, SPSS, and Minitab. There are also some online calculators that can be used to find p-values, but these should be used with caution as they may not be 100% accurate.

## What are the next steps after finding the p-value?

After finding the p-value, you will need to interpret it in order to determine whether or not to reject the null hypothesis. If the p-value is less than or equal to the significance level (α), you will reject the null hypothesis. This means that there is a statistically significant difference between the two groups. If the p-value is greater than α, you will fail to reject the null hypothesis. This means that there is not a statistically significant difference between the two groups.